Friday, March 18, 2005

Hinduism, Philosophical sutras and the rise of the six schools of philosophy

The most important of the Six Schools is the Vedanta (“End of the Vedas”), also called Uttara-Mimamsa, or later Mimamsa. The most renowned philosopher of this school and, indeed, of all Hinduism was Sankara

Thursday, March 17, 2005

France, History Of, Gaul

Stimulating overviews of Gaul in the context of French prehistory and early history are found in appropriate chapters of J.M. Wallace-Hadrill and John McManners (eds.), France: Government and Society, 2nd ed. (1970); and Stuart Piggott, Glyn Daniel, and Charles McBurney (eds.), France Before the Romans (1974). More detailed surveys are presented in Olwen Brogan, Roman Gaul (1953); J.J. Hatt, Histoire de la Gaule romaine, 120 avant J.-C.–451 après J.-C., 3rd ed. (1970); Paul MacKendrick, Roman France (1971); and J.F. Drinkwater, Roman Gaul: The Three Provinces, 58 BC–AD 260 (1983). Outstanding modern investigations of particular sites and areas of relevance to the study of Gaul as a whole are Paul-Marie Duval, Paris antique: des origines au troisième siècle (1961); Robert Étienne, Bordeaux antique (1962); Edith Mary Wightman, Roman Trier and the Treveri (1970), and Gallia Belgica (1985); Patrick Galliou, L'Armorique romaine (1983); Heinz Heinen, Trier und das Treverland in römischer Zeit (1985); and A.L.F. Rivet, Gallia Narbonensis: With a Chapter on Alpes Maritimae: Southern France in Roman Times (1988). Provoking syntheses of the contacts of Greeks, Celts, and Romans, based on the archaeological evidence, are offered in John Collis, The European Iron Age (1984); and Barry Cunliffe, Greeks, Romans, and Barbarians: Spheres of Interaction (1988). Life in later Roman Gaul is studied in C.E. Stevens, Sidonius Apollinaris and His Age (1933, reprinted 1979); John Matthews, Western Aristocracies and Imperial Court, A.D. 364–425 (1975); and Raymond Van Dam, Leadership and Community in Late Antique Gaul (1985). Herwig Wolfram, History of the Goths (1988; originally published in German, 1979); and Edward James, The Franks (1988), discuss the barbarian invasions. Camille Jullian, Histoire de la Gaule, 8 vol. (1920–26, reprinted 1964); Albert Grenier, Manuel d'archéologie gallo-romaine, 4 vol. in 7 (1931–60); and Paul-Marie Duval, La Gaule jusqu'au milieu de Ve siècle, 2 vol. (1971), are still important fundamental works on Gallic history and archaeology.

Tuesday, March 15, 2005

Amarna Style

Also called  Tell el-Amarna Style  revolutionary style of Egyptian art created by Amenhotep IV, who took the name Akhenaton during his reign (1353–36 BC) in the 18th dynasty. Often referred to as the Amarna heresy, Akhenaton's alteration of the artistic and religious life of Egypt was drastic. He laid the greatest stress on his own divinity as the manifestation of the god whom he designated the supreme and only deity,

Sunday, March 13, 2005

Ram, Jagjivan

Ram was born into an untouchable family and was among the first of his caste to receive a higher education. He attended Benares Hindu University and Calcutta University (B.Sc., 1931), becoming a member of Mohandas K. Gandhi's Congress Party in 1931. He played

Friday, March 11, 2005

Price, George

As a young man Price did odd jobs in printing offices and did freelance illustrations. During the 1920s he was active in advertising art. Much of the humour in his cartoons lay

Wednesday, March 09, 2005

Buddhism, Ordination

Admission to the sangha involves two distinct acts: pabbajja, which consists of renunciation of secular life and acceptance of monasticism as a novice, and upasampada, the official consecration as a monk. The evolution of the procedure is not entirely clear; in early times, the two acts probably occurred at the same time. Subsequently, the Vinaya established that upasampad

Monday, March 07, 2005

Minamoto Yoshitomo

Japanese warrior whose support of Taira Kiyomori, the leader of the Taira clan, in the Hogen Disturbance (1156) was decisive in a Taira victory over the Minamoto clan, headed by Yoshitomo's own father, Minamoto Tameyoshi. After Kiyomori's victory, Yoshitomo was ordered to kill his father. He refused, but another Minamoto officer, saying it would